Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 17:1, 23-30 (2018)
Ivana Brkanić Mihić, PhD is an architect and assistant professor at the Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture at the Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek in Croatia. Her academic and professional activities focus on contemporary housing, with an emphasis on quality of housing space. In her doctoral dissertation she developed the model for user evaluation of the apartment’s spatial characteristics. Her current research is aimed towards upgrading and extending the model to a larger number of parameters affecting the housing quality. She represents Croatia in the Management Committee and is a member of the Working Group 1 in the MCMH-EU COST Action.
Dina Stober has studied architecture and urban planning at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croatia. She was awarded a PhD in spatial and urban planning (2013) from the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. She is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture Osijek, University of Osijek where she teaches courses in urban planning, design of industrial buildings and integral design in architecture and civil engineering. Her interest is in digital heritage and integral design (HBIM). She is an active member of Osijek Association of Architects. She collaborated on several scientific projects: ERAMCA, Environmental Risk Assessment and Mitigation on Cultural Heritage Assets in Central Asia ERASMUS+ CBHE PROJECT NR. 609574 (2019-2022); VIRAL-Virtual Reality Archive Learning Erasmus + KA2 (2018-2021), HR-SLO bilateral project, Morphological characteristics, developmental potentials and regulatory
elements of Slovenian and Croatian rural settlements in the Pannonian area; COST Action TU1401 RELY ‘Renewable Energy and Landscape Quality’ (2014–2018); UNIREG IMPULSE Regional Universities as initiators of transnational region of knowledge, funded by IPA Cross-border Co-operation Programme 2011 (2011–2013); CARDS 2003 Sustainable development of small family farms in Baranya (2005–2006). She is Management Committee Substitute Member for Croatia and is a member of the Working Group 1 in the MCMH-EU COST Action.
The main objective of this research is to identify spatial configurations that were dominant in apartment design from 1930 to 2015 in the city of Osijek, Croatia. Development of apartment design will be shown in the framework of various time periods following the social and economic changes that have taken place in Osijek in the last decades.
For this research, a total of 590 apartment building plans were collected. The final sample contains 358 spatial configuration diagrams of medium-sized apartments.
Results identified five different spatial configurations that were innovative for the period in which they appeared. The conclusion of the research is that the spatial layout of the apartment changes according to social and economic periods. Differences among types were identified in apartment functions organized by zones versus those organized by rooms; direct versus indirect inter-room communication; the appearance of specific room functions versus the integration of room functions; and growth versus decline of the net area of specific rooms. Results can be applied in further studies on improving and adapting the existing housing stock to contemporary housing requirements.
Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science (2019)
Dr. Idan Porat holds B.A. in environmental studies, from the Technion; MSc and PhD (with excellence) in Urban and regional planning from the Technion. He is a senior lecturer and senior researcher at the Technion IIT. He is one of the founders of the Spatial Capital Lab and the Spatial Planning & Design Labat the Center for Urban and Regional Studies and the leading researcher of the ‘Israel 100’-national strategic plan. Idan teaches Graduate courses: Metropolitan studio, Regional and Metropolitan planning, and Urban Environmental Quality. Dr. Porat’s research interests are spatial planning policy, urban and regional strategic planning based on local capital assets and Multi-Parametric GIS analysis. He developed a “building pattern recognition” analysis toolkit for local, place based, urban renewal policy. His research was published in lead international journals and was presented in international conferences. He has over 15 years of practical experience in urban and regional planning. Idan is married to Smadar (Psychologist); father to Roni, Uri and Ziv and livesin Kiryat Tivon. He is a Management Committee Substitute Member for Israel in the MCMH-EU COST Action.
Dalit Shach-Pinsly is an architect and urban designer who received her Ph.D at the Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, Technion–IIT. She is currently a researcher and senior lecturer at the Technion–IIT. She was a Partner Investigator in the H2020-MG-9.2-2014 MIND-SETS – Mobility Innovations for a New Dawn in Sustainable Transport Systems. She was a senior researcher of FP7-DESURBS-EU-Designing Safer Urban Spaces. Formerly she joined the College of Built Environments at the University of Washington as a post-doctoral fellow sponsored by the competitive Marie Curie EU IOF Fellowship (2008-2011). Dr. Shach-Pinsly represents Israel in the Management Committee and is the co-leader of Working Group 1 of the MCMH-EU COST Action. Fields of interests: built environment, urban regeneration, measuring and evaluating diverse qualitative aspects of the urban environment, such as security and safety, visibility and privacy; master plan, analysis, methods and tools.
The focus of this study is on the ability of morphometrics and building pattern recognition to improve top-down urban renewal processes by identifying post-Second World War mass housing suitable for urban renewal. We used two conceptual frameworks: the first from the field of urban design and architecture and the second from the field of multi-parametric analysis and geographic information system. A survey of a sample of typical post-Second World War mass housing units based on historical blueprints was developed to identify geometric indicators. The geometric indicators were transformed into a geographic information system parametric model for the identification of post-Second World War mass housing units and sites in current urban plans on a city scale. The model was implemented in the city of Haifa, Israel, as a case study. The analysis results indicate 1288 buildings in 283 urban sites suitable for urban renewal, 10% of the present city’s housing stock.
In: Ana Tostões & Nataša Koselj (Eds.). Metamorphosis. The Continuity of Change. 15th International DOCOMOMO Conference, pp. 181-185 (2018)
Melinda Benkő (Ph.D. and habilitation in Architecture) is an Architect specialized in Urban Design. She is presently an Associate Professor at the Department of Urban Planning and Design, Faculty of Architecture, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary, which she headed between 2012-2019. Her research, academic, and professional activities focus on contemporary urban design theory and practice related to urban form and space usage. Ms. Benkő was the recipient of various grants: Bolyai Grant of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (2009-2012 and 2013-2016), French State Grant (1990-91, 2013), and the Fulbright Grant (2020 Spring) to pursue research at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She represents Hungary in the Management Committee and is a member of the Working Group 3 in the MCMH-EU COST Action.
In the 21th century European city, spatial and social configurations are changing quickly. Architecture, urban design and planning are classified as economic components of sustainability, because the market is the primary motor of planned urban developments and renewal. In the contemporary marketing process of investment, the promised safe and clean environment becomes fundamental. The paper focuses on one of the most problematic issues in relation to the topic of security: the transformation of the modern spatiality of mass housing landscape, which was originally planned around an everyday public character, stemming from modern urban and architecture theory about continuous space. As globalised products of 20 th century urbanism, these estates have undergone widely different trajectories, thanks to their actual position in economic and human geographies, and even on account of their built-up and natural environments. How, then, is the European modern mass housing urban landscape shaped by security-based contemporary development aspects? What is the role of architecture, urban design and planning in shaping the control-space of the ‘society of control’? What is the impact of this on Modernist continuous space? To accentuate the different approaches that have been followed, this research compares some concrete examples analysing their transformation. The comparison of case studies defines common and various problematics of these modern neighbourhood units, discovers and classifies their security-based factors of change and design solutions, and in addition proposes a new visualization method using a ‘trilogy’ of concepts-‘mass’, ‘enclosed’ and ‘void’,-to uncover the reality of space usage beyond the solid-void, black-white classical modern representation of the urban fabric.
[+] read more
Urban Planning, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 31–42 (2019)
Byron Ioannou studied Architecture (Dip. Eng.) and Urban & Regional Planning (MSc and PhD) at the National Technical University of Athens. He has also studied Planning Law (PG Cert) at Leeds Beckett University. He has an extended professional and research experience in planning, built environment and development issues. He is a member of ETEK (CY), TEE (GR) and the Royal Institute of Town Planners (UK). His current research focuses on development plans and regulation processes, planning law and inclusive urban development, environmental aspects of urban development, urban green, density and sprawl. He represents Cyprus in the Management Committee and is a member of the Working Group 3 of MCMH-EU COST Action.
Lora Nicolaou (PhD) is an architect, with postgraduate studies in urban design and is qualified as a town planner in the UK and Cyprus with extensive experience both in practice and academia. She was the Director of Urban Strategies at DEGW (1998-2009) a design and consultancy practice in London. In parallel she held the positions of the Head of Research for the Urban Renaissance Institute (URI) at the University of Greenwich, UK (2004-2010). Lora also taught at Oxford Brookes University (Joint Centre for Urban Design, 1989-2000) and a visit profession at the University of Cyprus (2011). She currently holds a position as a Visiting Academic at Frederick University, Cyprus where she co-founded a new research unit, UPDU (Urban Planning and Development Unit) and has established her own design studio, LMN Design, specialized in strategic briefing, masterplanning and research consultancy. Her interest is the interpretation of user’s needs & preferences in a way that can intelligently inform design and integrated development strategies. She represents Cyprus in the Management Committee and is a member of the Working Group 2 of MCMH-EU COST Action.
The article approaches different concepts of Large Urban Developments (LUDs) as products of the notion of a “spatial fix” (Harvey, 2001), which explains why built or natural environments can be deployed in the process of creating opportunities for new investments. Greece and Cyprus are two countries in the south of the European Union that underwent delayed urbanisation and significant land fragmentation in the form of small size private ownerships and with limited experience in comprehensive development. Greece has adopted a well-structured but complex spatial planning system, bureaucratic with limited effectiveness, adaptability or flexibility of delivery processes. On the other hand, Cyprus has a flexible but centralized system, effective in processing change but problematic in regulating quality in the built environment. Both countries recently experienced major financial crises. In the early 2010s, both governments promoted, as part of an economic recovery policy, extensive real estate development on public or privately-owned land with emphasis on LUDs as ways of addressing economic shortfalls. Inappropriately, LUDs have been primarily “conceived” as opportunities to attract foreign investments rather than a means of tackling crucial current deficiencies. New spatial planning frameworks merely add greater “flexibility” to the system in order to accelerate large private real estate investment. The article attempts to reveal, through case studies’ reviews, the impact of LUDs in countries with no infrastructure or experience in accommodating large-scale investment. It explores how the experience in Greece and Cyprus differs in terms of the relevant legislation adopted, the effectiveness in fulfilling its primary objective in attracting investment, and what are the possible social and environmental consequences on the planning acquis. [+] read more
In: Hess D., Tammaru T. (eds) Housing Estates in the Baltic Countries. The Urban Book Series. Springer, Cham (2019)
Marija Drėmaitė represents Lithuania in the Management Committee and is a member of the Working Group 2 of MCMH-EU COST Action. Marija Drėmaitė is a Professor at Vilnius University, Faculty of History. She holds a PhD in the history of architecture (2006). Her research is focused on the 20th century architecture, industrial culture and heritage. She is the author of Baltic Modernism: Architecture and Housing in Soviet Lithuania (Berlin: DOM Publishers, 2017), and editor of Architecture of Optimism: The Kaunas Phenomenon, 1918–1940 (Vilnius: Lapas, 2018). Currently she is working on a monograph about residential architecture in Soviet Lithuania and leads an expert group for the nomination of Kaunas Modernist Architecture to the UNESCO World Heritage List.
This chapter discusses Baltic (mostly Lithuanian) mass housing estates as winners of Soviet urban planning and housing competitions; the role of the architect in the field of standardised design; and Western architectural influences in Soviet Baltic housing estate design. In the field of industrialised and standardised housing construction, the role of architects and one-off design is of special interest, because industrialisation and standardisation in Soviet mass housing brought tension between planners of standardised large housing estates and master architects who drew up unique designs for public buildings. Despite the Communist Party declaring in 1955 the importance of mass housing, the Soviet Union’s most prestigious state award—the Lenin Prize—was only ever conferred upon one model site: the Lazdynai large housing estate in Vilnius, Lithuania, in 1974. This chapter thus focuses on the involvement and experimentation of Baltic architects in the planning of standardised housing estates; on professional acknowledgment and on the fulfilment of ideological requirements. [+] read more
Published by the Hellenic Institute of Architecture (2019)
Kostas Tsiambaos represents Greece in the Management Committee and is the co-leader of Working Group 1 in the MCMH-EU COST Action. Kostas Tsiambaos is Assistant Professor in History & Theory of Architecture at the School of Architecture of the National Technical University in Athens (NTUA). He studied in Athens (NTUA) and New York (GSAPP Columbia University). His research has been published in international journals and collective volumes (The Journal of Architecture, Architectural Research Quarterly, Architectural Histories, Arena). His recent book titled From Doxiadis’ Theory to Pikionis’ Work: Reflections of Antiquity in Modern Architecture (Paperback edition: Routledge, 2020) reexamines the historical boundaries of interwar modernism and restructures the ground of an alternative modernity that looks towards the future through a mirror that reflects the ancient past.
The Future as a Project: Doxiadis in Skopje brings into the spotlight the story of Skopje’s reconstruction after the 1963 earthquake and its modern heritage. It presents Constantinos A. Doxiadis’ work in Skopje, which includes a detailed survey of the affected areas, a series of reports, housing studies, and thoughts and diagrams for a new master plan. Furthermore, it features the work of Kenzo Tange for Skopje’s city center, and showcases a series of modernist buildings authored by leading Yugoslavian architects that still stand in the city today. [+] read more
Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, volume 35, pages 265–286 (2020)
Edmond Manahasa represents Albania in the Management Committee and is a member of Working Group 1. He is working since 2008 at Epoka University in Albania (English teaching university in Albania) as a lecturer at the department of architecture. Currently (from 2017) Edmond Manahasa is the head of department of architecture. He has been teaching the courses of Architectural Studio, History of Art and Architecture, Theory of Architecture, Architecture and Identity and Readings on History of Architecture. His PhD thesis conducted at Istanbul Technical University is titled: “Place attachment as a tool in examining place identity: a multilayered evaluation through housing in Tirana”. He is focused in two main research areas: 1. Environmental Behavior Psychology, and 2. History of Architecture. Within the first research area he has conducted studies and supervised master thesis in the themes of: place identity & place attachment, urban identity through housing typologies, housing typologies, gated communities, city image and mapping of social space, post-socialist housing developments, public space, usage and evaluation of housing, and usage and evaluation of coffee shops as public space. Whereas related to the second area he has conducted studies and supervised master thesis including: Ottoman architecture in the Albania and traditional house in Albania.
The study examines the attachment to city through housing typologies in an urban context, taking the case of post-socialist Tirana, which was facing the issue of urban identity. The approach of examining attachment to city through housing typology was used because housing is observed to be the predominant morphological stock of the urban fabric, which impacted a quasi-metamorphosis in Tirana’s identity and also because home was found to be the scale of place whose significance was highest from the attachment point of view. The methodology used in the study included sampling, surveying and data processing through SPSS. The sampling of housing typologies was conducted based on their architectural features that had evolved in pre-socialist, socialist and post-socialist periods, within a zone of Tirana called the “Middle Ring”. The questionnaire was administered to 225 inhabitants, namely, 25 dwellers per each of nine housing typologies, while the outputs were processed using SPSS software. Overall, the results showed that most of the interviewed inhabitants were attached to city through their dwellings. Most of the dwellers of seven typologies felt attached to city on different levels, whereas those of two typologies mostly felt unattached; thus, attachment to city is dependent on housing typologies. Predominantly, good location and architectural values of dwellings and slightly less a sense of belonging to a self-described nobility of Tirana were given as reasons for attachment to city. Overall the predictors that influenced the place attachment were found to be dwelling quality and comfort, duration, home ownership and age. [+] read more
Architect Dr. Yael Allweil is an architectural historian and faculty member at the Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, Technion Institute of Technology. Her research focus involves the history of housing in Israel and Palestine, and the history of struggles over urban public spaces. 2019-2020 Organizer of Re-theorizing the Architecture of Housing as Grounds for Research and Practice.
Examining architecture and planning documents from early Zionist settlements of 1860 to the 2011 mass housing protests, Yael will present housing as Zionism’s key strategy for sovereignty and state building. From this historiography, housing emerges as the object around which agonistic political society in Israel-Palestine has formed and operates. Historiography thus opens housing for theoretical inquiry: Why housing? What is housing? Covering historiographic material from her book, ‘Homeland: Zionism as Housing Regime 1860-2011,’ and theoretical work conducted at the Housing Architecture research group at Technion, Yael will look at housing at the intersection of design, politics and society.